Large Urban Transit Systems
​Commuters in large urban areas are faced with multiple and compounding impediments including long-distance commuting, congested travel, and downtown parking.  Hence, transit systems in these areas must utilize a variety of strategies.  Some common strategies employed are:
  • Express Bus
  • Bus Rapid Transit (BRT)
  • Light Rail Transit
Express Bus routes are designed for long-distance commuters. Although these services are often quite successful, they are subject to limitations. First, there is no provision made for intermediate stops between residential collection and Central Business District (CBD) distribution. Second, peak period traffic congestion can make service slow and unpredictable.  The express bus concept may be enhanced by the incorporation of High Occupancy Vehicle (HOV) lanes or Bus-Only lanes. 

Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) is an enhanced bus system that operates on bus lanes or other transit ways in order to combine the flexibility of buses with the efficiency of rail. By doing so, BRT operates at faster speeds, provides greater service reliability and increased customer convenience.

The Transportation Research Board defines Light Rail Transit as: "A metropolitan electric railway system characterized by its ability to operate single cars or short trains along exclusive rights-of-way at ground level, on aerial structures, in subways or, occasionally, in streets, and to board and discharge passengers at track or car-floor level.
 
References
Express Bus Systems
The Federal Transit Administration on Bus Rapid Transit is a repackaging and enhancement of express bus service to make it more like rail service, but at the same time offer a speed of deployment over a wider geographic area than is possible with light rail lines.
Express Bus Systems

FTA's Bus Rapid Transit Site
Bus Rapid Transit is an enhanced bus system that operates on bus lanes or other transit ways in order to combine the flexibility of buses with the efficiency of rail. By doing so, BRT operates at faster speeds, provides greater service reliability and increased customer convenience.
FTA's Bus Rapid Transit

TRB's Bus Rapid Transit List of Publications
TCRP is an applied research program that develops near-term, practical solutions to problems facing transit agencies. The Transportation Research Board of the National Academies manages the program. The Federal Transit Administration funds TCRP, and independent oversight and project selection for the program is provided by the Transit Development Corporation, Inc., a nonprofit educational and research organization established by the American Public Transportation Association.
TRB's Bus Rapid Transit Publications

Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide
TRB's Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) Report 118: Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide explores the costs, impacts and effectiveness of implementing selected bus rapid transit (BRT) components.
Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide

Bus Rapid Transit, Volume 1: Case Studies in Bus Rapid Transit
TRB's Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) Report 90: Bus Rapid Transit, Volume 1: Case Studies in Bus Rapid Transit identifies the potential range of bus rapid transit (BRT) applications through 26 case studies, and provides planning and implementation guidelines for BRT.
Case Studies in Bus Rapid Transit

Bus Rapid Transit, Volume 2: Implementation Guidelines
This report presents planning and implementation guidelines for bus rapid transit (BRT). The guidelines are based on a literature review and an analysis of 26 case study cities in the United State and abroad. The guidelines cover the main components of BRT - running ways, stations, traffic controls, vehicles, intelligent transportation systems (ITSs), bus operations, far collection and marketing, and implementation.
Implementation Guidelines

North American Light Rail
Low-floor light rail technology is the updated version of streetcar technology, re-engineered to meet contemporary needs for accessibility by seniors, parents with strollers, and persons in wheelchairs, and that the new light rail vehicles carry more passengers than either the old trolleys or buses, cutting operating costs.
North American Light Rail

Light Rail Now
The Light Rail Now Project is a charitable educational enterprise designed to support efforts both within North America and worldwide to develop and improve light rail transit (LRT) and other rail transit and mass transportation systems.
Light Rail Now

Louisville Transportation Tomorrow (T2)
After initial studies and analysis, rapid transit was prioritized over other alternatives and the locally preferred South Central Corridor was selected. The project entered into the Federal New Starts Program, and it was approved as a project in Horizon 2030, the region's long-range transportation plan.
Louisville Transportation Tomorrow

Louisville Area Transit
Established in 1971, the Transit Authority of River City (TARC) provides safe, courteous and comfortable public transportation in Louisville, Kentucky and surrounding counties. TARC's mission is to explore and implement transportation opportunities that enhance the social, economic and environmental well being of the greater Louisville community.
Transit Authority River City

Northern Kentucky Area Transit
The Transit Authority of North Kentucky (TANK) has provided transit services to Boone, Campbell and Kenton counties as well as downtown Cincinnati since 1973. TANK offers a "Downtown Connection" taking people from their homes in Northern Kentucky to jobs downtown as well as service to work sites in the southern areas of the Northern Kentucky region, with fast "reverse-commute" bus service.
Transit Authority of North Kentucky

Lexington Area Transit
Public transportation in Lexington dates back to the late 19th Century. Beginning with city omnibuses in 1874, the mule car days of 1882, the electric street car in 1890, the motor bus in 1938, and the trolley bus introduced in 1982, Lexington has experienced a continuing evolution in its public transportation system.
Lexington Area Transit